Normal values of the bioelectrical impedance vector in childhood and puberty

Tommaso De Palo, Giovanni Messina, Alberto Edefonti, Francesco Perfumo, Lorena Pisanello, Licia Peruzzi, Biagio Di Iorio, Massimo Mignozzi, Alessandro Vienna, Giovanni Conti, Rosa Penza, Antonio Piccoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to determine the reference, bivariate, and tolerance intervals of the whole-body impedance vector in Italian children. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study, and participants were chosen from the general school population. The impedance vector (standard, tetrapolar analysis at 50-kHz frequency) was measured in 3110 subjects, ages 2 to 15 y, and 2044 healthy children (1014 male and 1030 female) with weight and height within the 95th percentile were selected for the analysis (resistance-reactance graph method). The age-specific 95% confidence intervals of mean vectors and the 95%, 75%, and 50% tolerance intervals for individual vector measurements were plotted using resistance and reactance components standardized by the subject's height. Mean vectors from both sexes with separate 95% confidence ellipses were considered as representative of eight different age groups, from 2 to 13 y. There was a statistically significant sex effect on vector distribution from boys and girls in the age group of 14 to 15 y. The impedance vector distribution of children was also compared with healthy adult subjects (354 male and 372 female, age 15 to 85 y). There was a progressive, statistically significant vector shortening from age 2 to 15 y toward the adults' vector position. In conclusion, we established the trajectory followed by the mean impedance vector in children over ages 2 to 15 y and also obtained the reference, bivariate, and 95%, 75%, and 50% tolerance intervals of the impedance vector by age for healthy children, with which the vectors from children with altered body composition can be tested. (C) Elsevier Science Inc. 2000.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-424
Number of pages8
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2000


  • Bioelectrical impedance analysis
  • Body-composition analysis
  • Childhood
  • Growth
  • Impedance vector
  • Puberty
  • Reference values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Surgery
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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