Normative data and validation of the Italian translation of the Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ)

Paola Guariglia, Flavio Giaimo, Massimiliano Palmiero, Laura Piccardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reliable and valid measures are necessary to assess subjective working memory complaints that can be distinct from objective memory performance. The Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ) is a self-administered scale proposed by Vallat-Azouvi. It assesses the three different working memory domains (memory storage, attention, and executive functions) in accordance with Baddeley’s working memory model. Our aim was to propose an Italian translation of the WMQ and provide normative data. We collected normative data from 697 healthy Italian participants aged between 18 and 88 years. Percentiles and cutoff scores, taking into consideration age, gender, and education, were provided for the WMQ total scores and the three separate domains. The performance on the WMQ was influenced by age and education. In particular, age and education affected self-perceived working memory efficacy. Our data demonstrate a significant correlation between the WMQ and paper-and-pencil tests assessing working memory, attention, and executive functions. This study provides normative data that have been adjusted for relevant demographics and percentile grids in an Italian population. The results are in line with a previous French study that also supported the use of the WMQ as a valid prescreening instrument for working memory deficits in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Neuropsychology:Adult
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Attentive disorders
  • ecological assessment
  • executive functions
  • Italian standardization
  • working memory deficits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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