Follicular lymphoma (FL) generally has an indolent clinical course, but in some patients, a histological transformation (HT) into aggressive entities may take place and often lead to a poorer survival. The rituximab era has seen an improved outcome of FL, including those with HT. The current treatment strategies for transformed FL are based on immunochemotherapy for the cases with HT at the time of diagnosis or as the first event after watchful waiting. Patients transforming after prior treatment of FL usually benefit from autologous stem cell transplant. Unfortunately, early assessment of the transformation risk remains elusive. Recent studies delved the mechanisms of HT, showing that this is a complex process, resulting from a number of epigenetic and genetic lesions occurring in the tumour cell population as well as progressive changes in the tumour microenvironment. This novel knowledge has prompted clinical investigations on a variety of new therapeutic strategies.
- histological transformation
- transformed follicular lymphoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research