2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard frontline therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). Therapeutic options for patients with relapsed MM after ASCT include novel agents in different combos, salvage ASCT (sASCT), and allogeneic transplant, with no unique standard of care. We retrospectively analyzed 66 MM patients who relapsed after up-front single or double ASCT(s) and received novel agent-based sASCT at five Italian centers. Median event-free survival from up-front ASCT(s) to first relapse (EFS1) was 44 months. Seventy-three percent of patients received sASCT at first disease progression. Re-induction regimens were bortezomib based in 87% of patients. Response to re-induction therapy included complete response (CR) 18%, ≥ very good partial response (VGPR) 48%, and overall response rate (ORR) 83%. Response to sASCT included CR 44%, ≥ VGPR 77%, and ORR 94%. With a median follow-up of 24 months after sASCT, 39 patients experienced disease progression. Median EFS from sASCT (EFS2) was 17 months. Median overall survival from ASCT (OS1) and sASCT (OS2) was 166 and 43 months, respectively. EFS2 and OS2 were significantly shorter in patients with EFS1 ≤ 24 months, in patients who did not receive sASCT at first disease progression and in patients with extramedullary disease (EMD). In multivariate analysis, EFS1 ≤ 24 months was associated with shorter EFS2 and OS2, EMD was associated with shorter EFS2, and < CR after sASCT was associated with shorter OS2. Novel agent-based sASCT is a safe and effective procedure for relapsed MM.
- Multiple myeloma
- Novel agents
- Salvage autologous stem cell transplantation