Background: Epigenetics modulated tissue-specific gene expression during the onset of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and their complications. Methods: We searched the PubMed recent studies about the main epigenetic tags involved in type 1 and type 2 diabetes onset and their clinical complications. PubMed studies about the epigenetic tags involved in type 1 and 2 diabetes onset was searched. Results: The epigenetic methylation maps of cord blood samples highlighted differences in the methylation status of CpG sites within the MHC genes between carriers of diabetes type 1 DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 risk haplotypes. β cell-derived unmethylated INS DNA showed the decline of β-cell mass preserving insulin secretion. Differentially methylated regions in pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetes covered PDX1, TCF7L2, and ADCY5 promoters during islet dysfunction. The recruitment of SET7 and SUV39H1 histone methyltransferases and LSD-1 lysine-specific demethylase-1 at NF-kβ-p65 promoter in vascular cells was involved in coronary heart disease. Neutrophil extracellular trap, activated by protein arginine deiminase-4, impaired wound healing from diabetic foot ulcers. MiR-199a-3p over-expression induced coagulative cascade, swelling and pain by a down-regulation of SERPIN-E2 in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A DNA hypo-methylation and histone hyper-acetylation at MIOX promoter led an overexpression of ROS, fibronectin, HIF-1α and NOX-4 associated with diabetic tubulopathy. A hypo-methylation of H3K4 at SOD2 promoter by LSD-1 increased ROS causing diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: Epigenetics played a relevant role in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes.
- Coronary heart disease
- Diabetes type 1 and type 2
- Diabetic foot ulcer
- Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism