Novel pathogenic variants of the AIRE gene in two autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type i cases with atypical presentation: Role of the NGS in diagnostic pathway and review of the literature

Luigia Cinque, Cristina Angeletti, Alfredo Orrico, Stefano Castellana, Lucia Ferrito, Cristina Ciuoli, Tommaso Mazza, Marco Castori, Vito Guarnieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) with or without reversible metaphyseal dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder due to inactivating variants of the autoimmune regulator, AIRE, gene. Clinical variability of APS-1 relates to pleiotropy, and the general dysfunction of self-tolerance to organ-specific antigens and autoimmune reactions towards peripheral tissues caused by the underlying molecular defect. Thus, early recognition of the syndrome is often delayed, mostly in cases with atypical presentation, and the molecular confirm through the genetic analysis of the AIRE gene might be of great benefit. Methods. Our methods were to investigate, with a multigene panel next generation sequencing approach, two clinical cases, both presenting with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, also comprising the AIRE gene; as well as to comment our findings as part of a more extensive review of literature data. Results. In the first clinical case, two compound heterozygote pathogenic variants of the AIRE gene were identified, thus indicating an autosomal recessive inheritance of the disease. In the second case, only one AIRE gene variant was found and an atypical dominant negative form of APS-1 suggested, later confirmed by further medical ascertainments. Conclusions. APS-1 might present with variable and sometimes monosymptomatic presentations and, if not recognized, might associate with severe complications. In this context, next generation diagnostics focused on a set of genes causative of partially overlapping disorders may allow early diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number631
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalBiomedicines
Volume8
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Addison disease
  • APS-1
  • Chronic hypoparathyroidism
  • Mucocutaneous candidiasis
  • Next generation sequencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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