Adult neurogenesis, the generation of mature functional neurons from neural stem cells in specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, is implicated in brain physiology, neurodegeneration and mood disorders. Among the many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that modulate neurogenic activity, the role of nutrients, energy metabolism, and gut microbiota has recently emerged. It is increasingly evident that excessive calorie intake accelerates the age-dependent decline of neurogenesis, while calorie restriction and physical exercise have the opposite effect. Mechanistically, nutrient availability could affect neurogenesis by modulating autophagy, a cell-rejuvenating process, in neural stem cells. In parallel, diet can alter the composition of gut microbiota thus impacting the intestine-neurogenic niche communication. These exciting breakthroughs are here concisely reviewed.