Nutritional state and energy balance in cirrhotic patients with or without hypermetabolism. Multicentre prospective study by the 'Nutritional Problems in Gastroenterology' Section of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology (SIGE)

F. W. Guglielmi, C. Panella, A. Buda, G. Budillon, L. Caregaro, C. Clerici, D. Conte, A. Federico, G. Gasbarrini, A. Guglielmi, C. Loguercio, A. Losco, D. Martines, S. Mazzuoli, M. Merli, G. Mingrone, A. Morelli, G. Nardone, G. Zoli, A. Francavilla

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Abstract

Background and aims.: A total of 334 stable, compensated cirrhotic patients admitted to 10 Italian Gastroenterology Units were included in a prospective study to evaluate nutritional state and energy balance in liver cirrhosis. Materials and methods.: Nutritional state and calorie intake were examined in the total population, while adequacy of calorie intake versus measured total energy expenditure was evaluated in a comparable subpopulation and in 40 matched controls, by computing the energy balance. Results.: Our data demonstrated that: (i) malnutrition was present in 25% of the total patients and significantly correlated with the Child's group (A = 16%; B = 25%; C = 44%); (ii) the type of malnutrition is influenced by mBEE: normometabolic patients exhibit a significant (p <0.005) reduction of mid-arm fat area while both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic patients show a significant (p <0.005) decline in kg of free fat mass; (iii) normometabolic and hypometabolic patients have a negative energy balance, due to a high level of physical activity (127 ± 14 kJ) in the first group and a reduced energy intake/kg body weight (102 ± 12 kJ) in the second; (iv) hypermetabolic patients have a positive energy balance due to decreased daily physical activity/kg body weight (108 ± 28 kJ); (v) malnourished and normometabolic patients eat a significantly (p <0.05) reduced percentage of protein whereas malnourished and hypermetabolic patients eat a significantly increased percentage of fat (p <0.05). Conclusion.: Although multivariate regression analysis confirms that the Child-Pugh's score is a better independent predictor of malnutrition, the measure of REE, TEE, calorie intake and energy balance need to be routinely performed in cirrhotic patients, in order to recognise hypermetabolic and hypometabolic patients (approximately 30%) in whom the nutritional and metabolic parameters are indispensable as a basis for designing and prescribing personalised nutritional strategies that can treat muscle malnutrition and thus improve the morbidity and mortality rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)681-688
Number of pages8
JournalDigestive and Liver Disease
Volume37
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2005

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Gastroenterology
Multicenter Studies
Prospective Studies
Malnutrition
Fats
Energy Intake
Body Weight
Exercise
Liver Cirrhosis
Energy Metabolism
Multivariate Analysis
Regression Analysis
Morbidity
Muscles
Mortality

Keywords

  • Hypermetabolism
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Nutrient intake
  • Nutritional state
  • Physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Nutritional state and energy balance in cirrhotic patients with or without hypermetabolism. Multicentre prospective study by the 'Nutritional Problems in Gastroenterology' Section of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology (SIGE). / Guglielmi, F. W.; Panella, C.; Buda, A.; Budillon, G.; Caregaro, L.; Clerici, C.; Conte, D.; Federico, A.; Gasbarrini, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Loguercio, C.; Losco, A.; Martines, D.; Mazzuoli, S.; Merli, M.; Mingrone, G.; Morelli, A.; Nardone, G.; Zoli, G.; Francavilla, A.

In: Digestive and Liver Disease, Vol. 37, No. 9, 09.2005, p. 681-688.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Guglielmi, FW, Panella, C, Buda, A, Budillon, G, Caregaro, L, Clerici, C, Conte, D, Federico, A, Gasbarrini, G, Guglielmi, A, Loguercio, C, Losco, A, Martines, D, Mazzuoli, S, Merli, M, Mingrone, G, Morelli, A, Nardone, G, Zoli, G & Francavilla, A 2005, 'Nutritional state and energy balance in cirrhotic patients with or without hypermetabolism. Multicentre prospective study by the 'Nutritional Problems in Gastroenterology' Section of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology (SIGE)', Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 681-688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2005.03.010
Guglielmi, F. W. ; Panella, C. ; Buda, A. ; Budillon, G. ; Caregaro, L. ; Clerici, C. ; Conte, D. ; Federico, A. ; Gasbarrini, G. ; Guglielmi, A. ; Loguercio, C. ; Losco, A. ; Martines, D. ; Mazzuoli, S. ; Merli, M. ; Mingrone, G. ; Morelli, A. ; Nardone, G. ; Zoli, G. ; Francavilla, A. / Nutritional state and energy balance in cirrhotic patients with or without hypermetabolism. Multicentre prospective study by the 'Nutritional Problems in Gastroenterology' Section of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology (SIGE). In: Digestive and Liver Disease. 2005 ; Vol. 37, No. 9. pp. 681-688.
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AU - Guglielmi, F. W.

AU - Panella, C.

AU - Buda, A.

AU - Budillon, G.

AU - Caregaro, L.

AU - Clerici, C.

AU - Conte, D.

AU - Federico, A.

AU - Gasbarrini, G.

AU - Guglielmi, A.

AU - Loguercio, C.

AU - Losco, A.

AU - Martines, D.

AU - Mazzuoli, S.

AU - Merli, M.

AU - Mingrone, G.

AU - Morelli, A.

AU - Nardone, G.

AU - Zoli, G.

AU - Francavilla, A.

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N2 - Background and aims.: A total of 334 stable, compensated cirrhotic patients admitted to 10 Italian Gastroenterology Units were included in a prospective study to evaluate nutritional state and energy balance in liver cirrhosis. Materials and methods.: Nutritional state and calorie intake were examined in the total population, while adequacy of calorie intake versus measured total energy expenditure was evaluated in a comparable subpopulation and in 40 matched controls, by computing the energy balance. Results.: Our data demonstrated that: (i) malnutrition was present in 25% of the total patients and significantly correlated with the Child's group (A = 16%; B = 25%; C = 44%); (ii) the type of malnutrition is influenced by mBEE: normometabolic patients exhibit a significant (p <0.005) reduction of mid-arm fat area while both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic patients show a significant (p <0.005) decline in kg of free fat mass; (iii) normometabolic and hypometabolic patients have a negative energy balance, due to a high level of physical activity (127 ± 14 kJ) in the first group and a reduced energy intake/kg body weight (102 ± 12 kJ) in the second; (iv) hypermetabolic patients have a positive energy balance due to decreased daily physical activity/kg body weight (108 ± 28 kJ); (v) malnourished and normometabolic patients eat a significantly (p <0.05) reduced percentage of protein whereas malnourished and hypermetabolic patients eat a significantly increased percentage of fat (p <0.05). Conclusion.: Although multivariate regression analysis confirms that the Child-Pugh's score is a better independent predictor of malnutrition, the measure of REE, TEE, calorie intake and energy balance need to be routinely performed in cirrhotic patients, in order to recognise hypermetabolic and hypometabolic patients (approximately 30%) in whom the nutritional and metabolic parameters are indispensable as a basis for designing and prescribing personalised nutritional strategies that can treat muscle malnutrition and thus improve the morbidity and mortality rates.

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