Obesity and higher risk for severe complications of COVID-19: What to do when the two pandemics meet

Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli, Andrea P. Rossi, Massimo Pellegrini, Tiziana Todesco, Marwan El Ghoch

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread around the globe, infecting more than ten million individuals, with more than 500,000 dead; about one half of the infected people have recov-ered. Despite this fact, a subgroup of individuals affected by COVID-19 is at greater risk of developing worse outcomes and experience a high rate of mortality. Data on the association between obesity and COVID-19 are growing; the available studies, have reported a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients experiencing a severe COVID-19 course, with serious complications requiring hospitalization and admission to intensive care units. This paper attempts to highlight potential mechanisms behind the greater vulnerability to COVID-19 of individuals with obesity. The presence of uncon-trolled chronic obesity-related comorbidities, particularly pulmonary diseases, can present a primary fertile soil for respiratory tract infection. Combined with immune system impairments, such as alter-ation in the T-cell proliferation and macrophage differentiation, and the high pro-inflammatory cyto-kine production by the adipose organ, this may worsen the general condition toward a systemic diffusion of infection. Prevention remains the first line of intervention in these patients that can be achieved by adhering to social distancing and adopting hygiene precautions, combined with a healthy lifestyle. Patients with obesity require preferential access dedicated to primary care services to ensure they are regularly taking their medications for the treatment of any concurrent chronic diseases. Finally, their physicians must promptly manage any medical signs or symptoms in the case of suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) infection to prevent the risk of severe outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-36
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Volume27
Issue numberSP1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 29 2020

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Mortality
  • Obesity
  • Overweight
  • Pandemic
  • Severe complications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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