BACKGROUND: Treatment of post-transplant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurrence is still debated. The use of the fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody ofatumumab has been suggested.
CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: Two boys with FSGS received a kidney transplantation at the age of 15 years from a deceased and a living donor. Maintenance therapy consisted of calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative agents, and prednisone. Early post-transplant FSGS recurrence was observed after 2 and 3 days. Rituximab infusion and plasmapheresis sessions were performed with transient clinical improvement in the first patient, and no apparent response in the second patient. Both patients were treated with two ofatumumab infusions, which induced in patient #1 a complete and stable remission for more than 12 months and in patient #2 a partial remission with a progressive reduction of proteinuria and normalization of serum protein levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Ofatumumab may be a therapeutic option for post-transplant FSGS recurrence in patients who respond poorly to rituximab.