Off-the-shelf 3D printed titanium cups in primary total hip arthroplasty

Francesco Castagnini, Filippo Caternicchia, Federico Biondi, Claudio Masetti, Cesare Faldini, Francesco Traina

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Three-dimensional (3D)-printed titanium cups used in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) were developed to combine the benefits of a low elastic modulus with a highly porous surface. The aim was to improve local vascularization and bony ingrowth, and at the same time to reduce periprosthetic stress shielding. Additive manufacturing, starting with a titanium alloy powder, allows serial production of devices with large interconnected pores (trabecular titanium), overcoming the drawbacks of tantalum and conventional manufacturing techniques. To date, 3D-printed cups have achieved dependable clinical and radiological outcomes with results not inferior to conventional sockets and with good rates of osseointegration. No mechanical failures and no abnormal ion release and biocompatibility warnings have been reported. In this review, we focused on the manufacturing technique, cup features, clinical outcomes, open questions and future developments of off-the-shelf 3D-printed titanium shells in THA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)376-385
Number of pages10
JournalWorld Journal of Orthopedics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 18 2021


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Beam melting
  • Highly porous
  • Socket
  • Trabecular
  • Ultraporous


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