On the Feasibility of Breast Cancer Imaging Systems at Millimeter-Waves Frequencies

Simona Di Meo, Pedro Fidel Espín-López, Andrea Martellosio, Marco Pasian, Giulia Matrone, Maurizio Bozzi, Giovanni Magenes, Andrea Mazzanti, Luca Perregrini, Francesco Svelto, Paul Eugene Summers, Giuseppe Renne, Lorenzo Preda, Massimo Bellomi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Medical imaging currently relies on several techniques, including X-rays, magnetic resonance, and echography. However, these techniques exhibit drawbacks, and alternative approaches are required. Microwave imaging has been proposed as a possible solution, especially for breast cancer imaging. However, most of these systems work with a central frequency of a few gigahertz, and this leads to a suboptimum resolution, which can jeopardize the image quality. Millimeter waves can provide superior resolutions, at the cost of a lower penetration depth within the breast tissue. In addition, a significant fraction of the power generated by a mm-wave imaging system would be reflected back from the skin. For these reasons, and also considering that mm-wave transmitters and receivers have been historically outperformed by microwave counterparts in terms of available power and sensitivity, mm-wave imaging has not been considered a possible solution. This paper contributes to demonstrate a paradigm shift toward the possible use of mm-waves for breast cancer imaging of targets a few centimeter below the skin, a useful penetration depth for several cases. All key points are addressed using analytical, full-wave, and multiphysics simulations, including the system architecture (linear and conformal), the safety aspects (power density, specific absorption rate, and temperature increase), and the use of realistic breast models derived from ex vivo measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7879871
Pages (from-to)1795-1806
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Volume65
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2017

Fingerprint

Millimeter waves
breast
Imaging systems
millimeter waves
cancer
Imaging techniques
Skin
penetration
Microwaves
microwaves
Medical imaging
Magnetic resonance
Density (specific gravity)
transmitters
Image quality
magnetic resonance
radiant flux density
Transmitters
safety
receivers

Keywords

  • Antenna array
  • breast cancer
  • conformal array
  • dielectric characterization
  • dielectric properties
  • ex vivo tissues
  • microwave imaging
  • mm-wave imaging
  • multiphysics
  • power density
  • specific absorption rate (SAR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

On the Feasibility of Breast Cancer Imaging Systems at Millimeter-Waves Frequencies. / Di Meo, Simona; Espín-López, Pedro Fidel; Martellosio, Andrea; Pasian, Marco; Matrone, Giulia; Bozzi, Maurizio; Magenes, Giovanni; Mazzanti, Andrea; Perregrini, Luca; Svelto, Francesco; Summers, Paul Eugene; Renne, Giuseppe; Preda, Lorenzo; Bellomi, Massimo.

In: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 65, No. 5, 7879871, 01.05.2017, p. 1795-1806.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Di Meo, S, Espín-López, PF, Martellosio, A, Pasian, M, Matrone, G, Bozzi, M, Magenes, G, Mazzanti, A, Perregrini, L, Svelto, F, Summers, PE, Renne, G, Preda, L & Bellomi, M 2017, 'On the Feasibility of Breast Cancer Imaging Systems at Millimeter-Waves Frequencies', IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 65, no. 5, 7879871, pp. 1795-1806. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2017.2672938
Di Meo S, Espín-López PF, Martellosio A, Pasian M, Matrone G, Bozzi M et al. On the Feasibility of Breast Cancer Imaging Systems at Millimeter-Waves Frequencies. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 2017 May 1;65(5):1795-1806. 7879871. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2017.2672938
Di Meo, Simona ; Espín-López, Pedro Fidel ; Martellosio, Andrea ; Pasian, Marco ; Matrone, Giulia ; Bozzi, Maurizio ; Magenes, Giovanni ; Mazzanti, Andrea ; Perregrini, Luca ; Svelto, Francesco ; Summers, Paul Eugene ; Renne, Giuseppe ; Preda, Lorenzo ; Bellomi, Massimo. / On the Feasibility of Breast Cancer Imaging Systems at Millimeter-Waves Frequencies. In: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 2017 ; Vol. 65, No. 5. pp. 1795-1806.
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