On the gEUD biological optimization objective for organs at risk in Photon Optimizer of Eclipse treatment planning system

Antonella Fogliata, Stephen Thompson, Antonella Stravato, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Inverse planning optimization using biologically based objectives is becoming part of the intensity modulated optimization process. The performances and efficacy of the biologically based gEUD (generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose) objective implemented in the Photon Optimizer (PO) of Varian Eclipse treatment planning system have been here analyzed. gEUD is associated with the parameter a that accounts for the seriality of a structure, being higher for more serial organs. The PO was used to optimize volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans on a virtual homogeneous cylindrical phantom presenting a target and an organ at risk (OAR). The OAR was placed at 4 mm, 1 and 2 cm distance, or cropped at 0, 2 and 4 mm from the target. Homogeneous target dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions was requested with physical dose-volume objectives, while OAR dose was minimized with the upper gEUD objective. The gEUD specific a parameter was varied from 0.1 to 40 to assess its impact to OAR sparing and target coverage. Actual head and neck and prostate cases, with one parotid and the rectum as test OAR, were also analyzed to translate the results in the more complex clinical environment. Increasing the a parameter value in the gEUD objective, the optimization achieved lower volumes of the OAR which received the highest dose levels. The maximum dose in the OAR was minimized well with a values up to 20, while further increase of a to 40 did not further improve the result. The OAR mean dose was reduced for the OAR located at 1 and 2 cm distance from the target, enforced with increasing a. For cropped OARs, a mean dose reduction was achieved for a values up to 3-5, but mean dose increased for higher a values. The optimal choice of the parameter a depends on the mutual OAR and target position, and seriality of the organ. Today no significant compendium of clinical and biological specific a and gEUD values are available for a wide range of OARs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-114
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Biological optimization
  • gEUD
  • IMRT
  • Optimization objective
  • VMAT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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