Oncoplastic and reconstructive anatomy of the breast

Cicero Urban, Mario Rietjens, Flavia Kuroda, James Hurleyii

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Breast cancer surgery has gone through various changes and become more complex and biologically individualized. Although concern with local control of disease still persists, this is currently associated with an aesthetic–functional concept. Therefore, breast anatomy in the way it is traditionally approached needs updating. Form, volume, inframammary fold, height, and breast projection as well as the size and shape of the nipple and areola complex, liposubstitution level, and ptosis are some of the points concerning surface anatomy that have acquired more importance within the oncoplastic and reconstructive context. Similarly, the abdominal wall and the dorsal structure of the thorax must be part of the surgeon`s background, as one needs to have a full reconstructive and oncoplastic view in order to make more suitable surgical decisions. In this way, aesthetic–functional breast anatomy is essential to reconstructive breast cancer surgery. The spatial organization of the mammary ducts, the vascularization, and the innervation have relevant therapeutic implications in the era of sentinel node and oncoplastic surgery, so the reconstructive breast surgeon must be aware of all of these anatomic relationships. It is within such a perspective that this chapter has been developed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Italia s.r.l.
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9788847026520, 9788847026513
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2013


  • Breast anatomy
  • Breast cancer
  • Breast reconstruction
  • Oncoplastic surgery
  • Sentinel node biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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