OBJECTIVE - Some individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) exhibit a 1-h excursion of plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance testing as high as that of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The aim of this study was to characterize their metabolic phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 1,205 healthy volunteers (aged 29-61 years) underwent assessment of 1) oral glucose tolerance and 2) insulin sensitivity (standardized euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp), as part of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Risk (RISC) study. RESULTS - One-hour plasma glucose correlated better than 2-h plasma glucose with total insulin secretion (r = 0.43), β-cell glucose sensitivity (r = -0.46), and β-cell rate sensitivity (r = -0.18). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified 8.95 mmol/l as the best cutoff value for prediction of IGT from 1-h plasma glucose (sensitivity 77% and specificity 80%). Participants with NGT with 1-h plasma glucose >8.95 mmol/l had larger waist circumference, higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, higher fasting glucose, and higher insulin secretion than their counterparts with 1-h plasma glucose ≤8.95 mmol/l (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Moreover, they exhibited lower β-cell glucose sensitivity (P <0.001), β-cell rate sensitivity (P <0.001), and potentiation factor (P = 0.026). When compared with conventionally defined IGT, they were not different in waist circumference and BMI, hepatic insulin extraction, β-cell glucose sensitivity, β-cell rate sensitivity, and potentiation factor but did have greater insulin sensitivity along with reduced basal (P = 0.001) and total insulin secretion (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS - Higher values of 1-h plasma glucose may identify an intermediate condition between NGT and IGT characterized by greater insulin resistance, reduced β-cell glucose sensitivity, and reduced β-cell rate sensitivity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing