Retinal microcirculation shares similar features with cerebral small blood vessels. Thus, the retina may be considered an accessible `window' to detect the microvascular damage occurring in the setting of neurodegenerative disorders. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a non-invasive imaging modality providing depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the application of OCT-A in glaucoma and central nervous system conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Future directions aiming at evaluating whether OCT-A can be an additional biomarker for the early diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative disorders are also discussed.