PURPOSE:: To evaluate the vitreal, retinal, and choroidal features using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes affected by cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. METHODS:: Patients diagnosed with either active or inactive CMV retinitis were included in the study. Complete ophthalmic examination, serial color fundus photography, and SD-OCT (with and without enhanced depth imaging function) were performed for all the subjects at baseline and follow-up visits. The SD-OCT images were analyzed by two independent graders to evaluate the structural changes in areas of CMV retinitis. Prevalence data for vitreal, retinal, and choroidal SD-OCT features were collected. RESULTS:: Twelve eyes from 9 patients (6 males, mean age: 52.7 ± 10.3 years) were enrolled. Nine eyes were diagnosed with active CMV retinitis at baseline. Active disease SD-OCT characteristic findings included nebulous vitritis (100%), posterior hyaloid thickening (83.3%), epiretinal membrane (100%), and retinal swelling (100%). Two distinct patterns of chorioretinal involvement were observed in active retinitis: 1) full-thickness retinitis (Full thickness retinitis) (n = 7 eyes) with choriocapillaris alterations and retinal pigment epithelial thickening and 2) cavernous retinitis (n = 3 eyes) characterized by inner retinal hyperreflectivity, large empty spaces in outer nuclear layer, and bridges of retinal tissue but retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris sparing. Patients with cavernous retinitis develop retinal detachment during follow-up. Eyes with Full thickness retinitis developed choriocapillaris atrophy and choroidal thinning and retinal scars as the lesions healed. CONCLUSION:: There are two distinct patterns of chorioretinal involvement in CMV retinitis. SD-OCT is a useful tool in the diagnosis, management, and prediction of the outcome of CMV retinitis.
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