Optimizing therapy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the absence of randomized clinical trial data, questions remain regarding the optimal treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. CRE have historically been susceptible to polymyxins, tigecycline or aminoglycosides (mostly gentamicin), and these antibiotics have long been considered the drugs of choice for CRE infections, although varying rates of resistance to all have been reported. This review looks at data from clinical studies assessing the outcomes of CRE infections treated with different antibiotic regimens.

RECENT FINDINGS: The recently approved fixed-dose combination agent, ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI), is active against KPC and OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The limited clinical data available on CAZ-AVI indicate that it is associated with survival benefits relative to other commonly used regimens, although development of resistance is a concern. New drugs active against CRE isolates (including the recently approved meropenem-vaborbactam) are in different stages of development.

SUMMARY: CAZ-AVI and meropenem-vaborbactam seem destined to become the backbone of target therapy for high-risk patients with severe infections caused by susceptible CRE strains. However, empirical therapy should be based on risk factors to be defined in the near future, whereas the necessity of combinations with CAZ-AVI requires further studies. Polymyxins are still important options for low-risk patients with susceptible CRE infections, but also for high-risk patients in regions where metallo-β-lactamase-producing CRE predominate because CAZ-AVI and meropenem-vaborbactam are both ineffective against these strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-577
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Volume31
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018

Fingerprint

Enterobacteriaceae Infections
Carbapenems
meropenem
Enterobacteriaceae
Polymyxins
Therapeutics
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Aminoglycosides
Gentamicins
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Randomized Controlled Trials
ceftazidime drug combination avibactam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Optimizing therapy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. / Tumbarello, Mario; Losito, Angela Raffaella; Giamarellou, Helen.

In: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 31, No. 6, 01.12.2018, p. 566-577.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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