Oral fat load effects on inflammation and endothelial stress markers in healthy subjects

Giuseppe Derosa, Ilaria Ferrari, Angela D'Angelo, Sibilla A T Salvadeo, Elena Fogari, Alessia Gravina, Roberto Mereu, Ilaria Palumbo, Pamela Maffioli, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G Cicero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The aim was to study the effect of a standardized oral fat load (OFL) on different inflammatory parameters in a large sample of adult healthy subjects (n = 286) of both sexes. The fat load was given between 08:00 and 09:00 h after a 12-h fast. Blood samples were drawn before and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after the OFL. All patients underwent a measurement of body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (BG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tg), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increase was +3.26% at 3 h, +4.35% at 6 h, +1.09% at 9 h while FPG decrease was -1.09% at 12 h. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increase was +2.08% at 3 h, and at 12 h during OFL study; a significant HDL-C decrease was present in subjects after 6 h (-4.17%; P <0.05 vs 0). A significant Tg change was observed after 6 h (+70.37%; P <0.01 vs 0) and 9 h (+58.33%; P <0.05 vs 0) respectively, and the increase was +22.22% at 3 h and +18.52% at 12 h. Total cholesterol increase was +0.52% after 3 h, +1.04% after 6 h, while after 12 h the decrease was -0.52%. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increase was +1.64% after 6 h with a decrease of -0.82% at 9 and 12 h. A significant sICAM-1, hsCRP, and sE-selectin variation was observed after 6 and 9 h, while a significant sVCAM-1 change occurred after 3, 6, and 9 h. Soluble ICAM-1 increase was +20.58% at 3 h, +34.10% at 6 h (P <0.05 vs 0) +25.94% at 9 h (P <0.01 vs 0), and +19.14% at 12 h; sVCAM-1 increase was +13.97% (P <0.05 vs 0) at 3 h, +18.55% at 6 h (P <0.01 vs 0), +12.02% at 9 h (P <0.05 vs 0), and +8.70% at 12 h. High-sensitivity CRP increase was +36.36% at 3 h, +90.91% at 6 h (P <0.01 vs 0), +63.64% at 9 h (P <0.05 vs 0), and +36.36% at 12 h. Soluble E-selectin increase was +27.11% at 3 h, +51.90% at 6 h (P <0.05 vs 0), +45.19% at 9 h (P <0.01 vs 0), and +20.12% at 12 h. Interleukin-6 increase was +61.11% at 3 h (P <0.05 vs 0), +83.33% at 6 h (P <0.001 vs 0), +55.56% at 9 h (P <0.01 vs 0), and +22.22% at 12 h. Tumor necrosis factor-α increase was +42.86% at 3 h (P <0.05 vs 0), +71.43% at 6 h (P <0.01 vs 0), (+50.00% at 9 h (P <0.05 vs 0), and +28.57% at 12 h. We observed that the OFL induces a complex and massive systemic inflammatory response that includes IL-6, TNF-α, hsCRP, and cell adhesion molecules, even before Tg significantly rises.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-210
Number of pages7
JournalHeart and Vessels
Volume24
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Keywords

  • Endothelial stress
  • Healthy subjects
  • Inflammation markers
  • Oral fat load

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Derosa, G., Ferrari, I., D'Angelo, A., Salvadeo, S. A. T., Fogari, E., Gravina, A., Mereu, R., Palumbo, I., Maffioli, P., Randazzo, S., & Cicero, A. F. G. (2009). Oral fat load effects on inflammation and endothelial stress markers in healthy subjects. Heart and Vessels, 24(3), 204-210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00380-008-1109-y