Oral lichen planus and other confounding factors in narrow band imaging (NBI) during routine inspection of oral cavity for early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective pilot study

Agostino Guida, Mariagrazia Maglione, Anna Crispo, Francesco Perri, Salvatore Villano, Ettore Pavone, Corrado Aversa, Francesco Longo, Florinda Feroce, Gerardo Botti, Franco Ionna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Narrow Band Imaging is a noninvasive optical diagnostic tool. It allows the visualization of sub-mucosal vasculature; four patterns of shapes of submucosal capillaries can be recognized, increasingly associated with neoplastic transformation. With such characteristics, it has showed high effectiveness for detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Still, scientific literature highlights several bias/confounding factors, such as Oral Lichen Planus. We performed a retrospective observational study on patients routinely examined with Narrow Band Imaging, investigating for bias, confounding factors and conditions that may limit its applicability. Methods: Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures, history of head & neck radiotherapy, history of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, site of the lesion and thickness of the epithelium of origin were statistically evaluated as possible bias/confounding factors. Pearson's Chi-squared test, multivariate logistic regression, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Likelihood Ratio, Negative Likelihood Ratio and accuracy were calculated, normalizing the cohort with/without patients affected by Oral Lichen Planus, to acknowledge its role as bias/confounding factor. Results: Five hundred fifty-six inspections were performed on 106 oral cavity lesions from 98 patients. Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures and anamnesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were not found to influence Narrow Band Imaging. History of head & neck radiotherapy was not assessed due to insufficient sample. Epithelium thickness does not seem to interfere with feasibility. Presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort led to false positives but not to false negatives. Among capillary patterns, number IV was the most significantly associated to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (p < 0.001), not impaired by the presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort (accuracy: 94.3, 95% confidence interval: 88.1-97.9%; odds ratio: 261.7, 95% confidence interval: 37.7-1815.5). Conclusion: Narrow Band Imaging showed high reliability in detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a cohort of patients with oral cavity lesions not normalized for bias/confounding factors. Still, Oral Lichen Planus may lead to false positives. Narrow Band Imaging could help in the follow-up of patients with multiple lesions through detection of capillary pattern IV, which seems to be the most significantly associated to neoplastic epithelium.

Original languageEnglish
Article number70
JournalBMC Oral Health
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 30 2019

Fingerprint

Narrow Band Imaging
Oral Lichen Planus
Mouth
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Retrospective Studies
Epithelium
Dentures
Neck
Radiotherapy
Smoking
Head
Confidence Intervals
Literature
Observational Studies
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Interviews
Sensitivity and Specificity

Keywords

  • Early diagnosis
  • Follow-up
  • Narrow band imaging
  • Oral lichen planus
  • Oral potentially malignant disease
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

@article{bfdc6fd9fdcf45f0921cbf8dafcf3f31,
title = "Oral lichen planus and other confounding factors in narrow band imaging (NBI) during routine inspection of oral cavity for early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective pilot study",
abstract = "Background: Narrow Band Imaging is a noninvasive optical diagnostic tool. It allows the visualization of sub-mucosal vasculature; four patterns of shapes of submucosal capillaries can be recognized, increasingly associated with neoplastic transformation. With such characteristics, it has showed high effectiveness for detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Still, scientific literature highlights several bias/confounding factors, such as Oral Lichen Planus. We performed a retrospective observational study on patients routinely examined with Narrow Band Imaging, investigating for bias, confounding factors and conditions that may limit its applicability. Methods: Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures, history of head & neck radiotherapy, history of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, site of the lesion and thickness of the epithelium of origin were statistically evaluated as possible bias/confounding factors. Pearson's Chi-squared test, multivariate logistic regression, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Likelihood Ratio, Negative Likelihood Ratio and accuracy were calculated, normalizing the cohort with/without patients affected by Oral Lichen Planus, to acknowledge its role as bias/confounding factor. Results: Five hundred fifty-six inspections were performed on 106 oral cavity lesions from 98 patients. Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures and anamnesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were not found to influence Narrow Band Imaging. History of head & neck radiotherapy was not assessed due to insufficient sample. Epithelium thickness does not seem to interfere with feasibility. Presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort led to false positives but not to false negatives. Among capillary patterns, number IV was the most significantly associated to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (p < 0.001), not impaired by the presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort (accuracy: 94.3, 95{\%} confidence interval: 88.1-97.9{\%}; odds ratio: 261.7, 95{\%} confidence interval: 37.7-1815.5). Conclusion: Narrow Band Imaging showed high reliability in detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a cohort of patients with oral cavity lesions not normalized for bias/confounding factors. Still, Oral Lichen Planus may lead to false positives. Narrow Band Imaging could help in the follow-up of patients with multiple lesions through detection of capillary pattern IV, which seems to be the most significantly associated to neoplastic epithelium.",
keywords = "Early diagnosis, Follow-up, Narrow band imaging, Oral lichen planus, Oral potentially malignant disease, Oral squamous cell carcinoma",
author = "Agostino Guida and Mariagrazia Maglione and Anna Crispo and Francesco Perri and Salvatore Villano and Ettore Pavone and Corrado Aversa and Francesco Longo and Florinda Feroce and Gerardo Botti and Franco Ionna",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1186/s12903-019-0762-0",
language = "English",
volume = "19",
journal = "BMC Oral Health",
issn = "1472-6831",
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T1 - Oral lichen planus and other confounding factors in narrow band imaging (NBI) during routine inspection of oral cavity for early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma

T2 - A retrospective pilot study

AU - Guida, Agostino

AU - Maglione, Mariagrazia

AU - Crispo, Anna

AU - Perri, Francesco

AU - Villano, Salvatore

AU - Pavone, Ettore

AU - Aversa, Corrado

AU - Longo, Francesco

AU - Feroce, Florinda

AU - Botti, Gerardo

AU - Ionna, Franco

PY - 2019/4/30

Y1 - 2019/4/30

N2 - Background: Narrow Band Imaging is a noninvasive optical diagnostic tool. It allows the visualization of sub-mucosal vasculature; four patterns of shapes of submucosal capillaries can be recognized, increasingly associated with neoplastic transformation. With such characteristics, it has showed high effectiveness for detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Still, scientific literature highlights several bias/confounding factors, such as Oral Lichen Planus. We performed a retrospective observational study on patients routinely examined with Narrow Band Imaging, investigating for bias, confounding factors and conditions that may limit its applicability. Methods: Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures, history of head & neck radiotherapy, history of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, site of the lesion and thickness of the epithelium of origin were statistically evaluated as possible bias/confounding factors. Pearson's Chi-squared test, multivariate logistic regression, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Likelihood Ratio, Negative Likelihood Ratio and accuracy were calculated, normalizing the cohort with/without patients affected by Oral Lichen Planus, to acknowledge its role as bias/confounding factor. Results: Five hundred fifty-six inspections were performed on 106 oral cavity lesions from 98 patients. Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures and anamnesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were not found to influence Narrow Band Imaging. History of head & neck radiotherapy was not assessed due to insufficient sample. Epithelium thickness does not seem to interfere with feasibility. Presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort led to false positives but not to false negatives. Among capillary patterns, number IV was the most significantly associated to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (p < 0.001), not impaired by the presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort (accuracy: 94.3, 95% confidence interval: 88.1-97.9%; odds ratio: 261.7, 95% confidence interval: 37.7-1815.5). Conclusion: Narrow Band Imaging showed high reliability in detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a cohort of patients with oral cavity lesions not normalized for bias/confounding factors. Still, Oral Lichen Planus may lead to false positives. Narrow Band Imaging could help in the follow-up of patients with multiple lesions through detection of capillary pattern IV, which seems to be the most significantly associated to neoplastic epithelium.

AB - Background: Narrow Band Imaging is a noninvasive optical diagnostic tool. It allows the visualization of sub-mucosal vasculature; four patterns of shapes of submucosal capillaries can be recognized, increasingly associated with neoplastic transformation. With such characteristics, it has showed high effectiveness for detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Still, scientific literature highlights several bias/confounding factors, such as Oral Lichen Planus. We performed a retrospective observational study on patients routinely examined with Narrow Band Imaging, investigating for bias, confounding factors and conditions that may limit its applicability. Methods: Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures, history of head & neck radiotherapy, history of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, site of the lesion and thickness of the epithelium of origin were statistically evaluated as possible bias/confounding factors. Pearson's Chi-squared test, multivariate logistic regression, Positive Predictive Value, Negative Predictive Value, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Likelihood Ratio, Negative Likelihood Ratio and accuracy were calculated, normalizing the cohort with/without patients affected by Oral Lichen Planus, to acknowledge its role as bias/confounding factor. Results: Five hundred fifty-six inspections were performed on 106 oral cavity lesions from 98 patients. Age, sex, smoking, use of dentures and anamnesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were not found to influence Narrow Band Imaging. History of head & neck radiotherapy was not assessed due to insufficient sample. Epithelium thickness does not seem to interfere with feasibility. Presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort led to false positives but not to false negatives. Among capillary patterns, number IV was the most significantly associated to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (p < 0.001), not impaired by the presence of Oral Lichen Planus patients in the cohort (accuracy: 94.3, 95% confidence interval: 88.1-97.9%; odds ratio: 261.7, 95% confidence interval: 37.7-1815.5). Conclusion: Narrow Band Imaging showed high reliability in detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a cohort of patients with oral cavity lesions not normalized for bias/confounding factors. Still, Oral Lichen Planus may lead to false positives. Narrow Band Imaging could help in the follow-up of patients with multiple lesions through detection of capillary pattern IV, which seems to be the most significantly associated to neoplastic epithelium.

KW - Early diagnosis

KW - Follow-up

KW - Narrow band imaging

KW - Oral lichen planus

KW - Oral potentially malignant disease

KW - Oral squamous cell carcinoma

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DO - 10.1186/s12903-019-0762-0

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