Oral lichenoid tissue reactions: Diagnosis and classification

Ahmed Salih Khudhur, Giovanni Di Zenzo, Marco Carrozzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The concept of lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis was introduced in dermatology to define a number of diverse inflammatory skin diseases linked together by the presence of common histopathological features. Similarly to the skin, the oral mucosa is affected by a variety of oral lichenoid lesions. Oral LTRs (OLTRs) include: oral lichen planus; oral lichenoid contact lesion; oral lichenoid drug reaction; oral lichenoid lesions of graft-versus-host disease; oral discoid lupus erythematosus; oral lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus; erythema multiforme; paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome; chronic ulcerative stomatitis and lichen planus pemphigoid. Traditionally, diagnosis of OLTRs relies on clinical and histological correlation but in several instances this approach fails to provide a reliable diagnosis. Inclusion of molecular techniques may refine our ability to differentiate OLTRs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-184
Number of pages16
JournalExpert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


  • chronic ulcerative stomatitis
  • discoid lupus erythematosus
  • erythema multiforme
  • graft-versus-host disease
  • lichen planus
  • lichen planus pemphigoid
  • lichenoid lesions
  • oral lichen planus
  • paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome
  • systemic lupus erythematosus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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