Oral melphalan and dexamethasone grants extended survival with minimal toxicity in AL amyloidosis: Long-term results of a risk-adapted approach

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Abstract

The combination of oral melphalan and dexamethasone is considered standard therapy for patients with light-chain amyloidosis ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, previous trials reported different rates of response and survival, mainly because of the different proportions of high-risk patients. In the present study, including a total of 259 subjects, we treated 119 patients with full-dose melphalan and dexamethasone (dexamethasone 40 mg days 1-4), and 140 patients with advanced cardiac disease with an attenuated dexamethasone schedule (20 mg). Hematologic response rates were 76% in the full-dose group and 51% in the patients receiving the attenuated schedule The corresponding complete response rates were 31% and 12%, respectively. The median survival was 7.4 years in the full-dose group and 20 months in the attenuated-dose group. Use of high-dose dexamethasone, amino-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide type-B >1800 ng/L, a difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains of >180 mg/L, troponin I >0.07 ng/mL, and response to therapy were independent prognostic determinants. In relapsed/refractory subjects bortezomib combinations granted high hematologic response rates (79% and 63%, respectively), proving the most effective rescue treatment after melphalan and dexamethasone. In summary, melphalan plus dexamethasone was highly effective with minimal toxicity, confirming its central role in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Future randomized trials will clarify whether bortezomib is best used in frontline combination with melphalan and dexamethasone or as rescue treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-750
Number of pages8
JournalHaematologica
Volume99
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Melphalan
Organized Financing
Amyloidosis
Dexamethasone
Survival
Appointments and Schedules
Therapeutics
Light
Troponin I
Brain Natriuretic Peptide
Stem Cell Transplantation
Heart Diseases
Survival Rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Oral melphalan and dexamethasone grants extended survival with minimal toxicity in AL amyloidosis: Long-term results of a risk-adapted approach",
abstract = "The combination of oral melphalan and dexamethasone is considered standard therapy for patients with light-chain amyloidosis ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, previous trials reported different rates of response and survival, mainly because of the different proportions of high-risk patients. In the present study, including a total of 259 subjects, we treated 119 patients with full-dose melphalan and dexamethasone (dexamethasone 40 mg days 1-4), and 140 patients with advanced cardiac disease with an attenuated dexamethasone schedule (20 mg). Hematologic response rates were 76{\%} in the full-dose group and 51{\%} in the patients receiving the attenuated schedule The corresponding complete response rates were 31{\%} and 12{\%}, respectively. The median survival was 7.4 years in the full-dose group and 20 months in the attenuated-dose group. Use of high-dose dexamethasone, amino-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide type-B >1800 ng/L, a difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains of >180 mg/L, troponin I >0.07 ng/mL, and response to therapy were independent prognostic determinants. In relapsed/refractory subjects bortezomib combinations granted high hematologic response rates (79{\%} and 63{\%}, respectively), proving the most effective rescue treatment after melphalan and dexamethasone. In summary, melphalan plus dexamethasone was highly effective with minimal toxicity, confirming its central role in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Future randomized trials will clarify whether bortezomib is best used in frontline combination with melphalan and dexamethasone or as rescue treatment.",
author = "Giovanni Palladini and Paolo Milani and Andrea Foli and Laura Obici and Francesca Lavatelli and Mario Nuvolone and Riccardo Caccialanza and Stefano Perlini and Giampaolo Merlini",
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T1 - Oral melphalan and dexamethasone grants extended survival with minimal toxicity in AL amyloidosis

T2 - Long-term results of a risk-adapted approach

AU - Palladini, Giovanni

AU - Milani, Paolo

AU - Foli, Andrea

AU - Obici, Laura

AU - Lavatelli, Francesca

AU - Nuvolone, Mario

AU - Caccialanza, Riccardo

AU - Perlini, Stefano

AU - Merlini, Giampaolo

PY - 2014

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N2 - The combination of oral melphalan and dexamethasone is considered standard therapy for patients with light-chain amyloidosis ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, previous trials reported different rates of response and survival, mainly because of the different proportions of high-risk patients. In the present study, including a total of 259 subjects, we treated 119 patients with full-dose melphalan and dexamethasone (dexamethasone 40 mg days 1-4), and 140 patients with advanced cardiac disease with an attenuated dexamethasone schedule (20 mg). Hematologic response rates were 76% in the full-dose group and 51% in the patients receiving the attenuated schedule The corresponding complete response rates were 31% and 12%, respectively. The median survival was 7.4 years in the full-dose group and 20 months in the attenuated-dose group. Use of high-dose dexamethasone, amino-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide type-B >1800 ng/L, a difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains of >180 mg/L, troponin I >0.07 ng/mL, and response to therapy were independent prognostic determinants. In relapsed/refractory subjects bortezomib combinations granted high hematologic response rates (79% and 63%, respectively), proving the most effective rescue treatment after melphalan and dexamethasone. In summary, melphalan plus dexamethasone was highly effective with minimal toxicity, confirming its central role in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Future randomized trials will clarify whether bortezomib is best used in frontline combination with melphalan and dexamethasone or as rescue treatment.

AB - The combination of oral melphalan and dexamethasone is considered standard therapy for patients with light-chain amyloidosis ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, previous trials reported different rates of response and survival, mainly because of the different proportions of high-risk patients. In the present study, including a total of 259 subjects, we treated 119 patients with full-dose melphalan and dexamethasone (dexamethasone 40 mg days 1-4), and 140 patients with advanced cardiac disease with an attenuated dexamethasone schedule (20 mg). Hematologic response rates were 76% in the full-dose group and 51% in the patients receiving the attenuated schedule The corresponding complete response rates were 31% and 12%, respectively. The median survival was 7.4 years in the full-dose group and 20 months in the attenuated-dose group. Use of high-dose dexamethasone, amino-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide type-B >1800 ng/L, a difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains of >180 mg/L, troponin I >0.07 ng/mL, and response to therapy were independent prognostic determinants. In relapsed/refractory subjects bortezomib combinations granted high hematologic response rates (79% and 63%, respectively), proving the most effective rescue treatment after melphalan and dexamethasone. In summary, melphalan plus dexamethasone was highly effective with minimal toxicity, confirming its central role in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Future randomized trials will clarify whether bortezomib is best used in frontline combination with melphalan and dexamethasone or as rescue treatment.

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