Objective: To analyze the impact of gender on the clinicopathologic features and survival of patients with surgically treated papillary renal cell carcinoma (papRCC) using a comprehensive international multicenter database. Materials and Methods: Data of 2325 patients undergoing surgery for unilateral papRCC between 1984 and 2015 in 17 European and North American centers were retrospectively collated. The impact of clinicopathologic features on the likelihood of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) was evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. The influence on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality was analyzed by multivariable competing-risk regression models. Finally, subgroup analyses were conducted for organ-confined (n = 2075) and non-organ-confined tumors (n = 250). The median follow-up was 47 months. Results: The study cohort included 1782 (77%) male patients (male-to-female ratio 3.3:1.0). Considering age, symptoms at presentation, performance status, pathologic tumor size, stage, and grade, we observed that there were no significant gender-specific differences. In contrast, female patients underwent NSS significantly less frequently (P <.001). On multivariable analysis, the likelihood of NSS was 72% higher in male patients after adjusting for all relevant cofactors (P <.001). No significant gender-specific differences in terms of CSM and other-cause mortality were demonstrated, but CSM was 59% lower in female patients in the subgroup of organ-confined tumors (P = .001). Conclusion: No impact of gender on survival was found analyzing this large cohort of patients undergoing surgery for papRCC. However, CSM appears to be lower in female patients with organ-confined disease. In this context, it is interesting that the likelihood of NSS seems to be significantly higher in male patients. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.