Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of orthopedic devices for maxillary protraction in patients with class III malocclusion, with reference to the indications for and timing of treatment and the short-term and long-term outcomes. Materials and methods: This study is based on a review of the literature (CCTs, RCTs, reviews, metanalyses) published during the period from January 2000 to May 2011. Results: Fifteen articles were selected for review on the basis of explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion. The articles differed from one another in terms of the treatments assessed (devices, protocols, and timing). Conclusions: Orthopedic maxillary protraction devices are indicated for correction of class III malocclusion in patients under 10 years old of age. They appear to be effective on the basis of short-term observations; no long-term outcomes have been reported thus far.
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