Introduction: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) of the cervicothoracic spine is a deformity that can affect patients who have undergone long thoracolumbar instrumented fusion. Preoperative hyperkyphosis of the thoracic spine and changes of more than 30° in lumbar lordosis are independent risk factors for the onset of PJK.
Methods: When PJK occurs in the cervicothoracic spine, extension of the fusion with eventual application of osteotomy techniques is frequently necessary to treat symptomatic patients or in case a neurological deficit occurs. Ponte osteotomy and pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) are the two most used techniques to restore a good cervicothoracic alignment, although they are still demanding procedures even for expert surgeons. In junctional fractures, a vertebral column resection can be performed to support the anterior column. Ponte osteotomy ideally restores 10° at each treated level, while PSO allows a segmental correction up to 30°–35°. Adequate preoperative planning is fundamental for outlining the correct surgery and choosing the appropriate osteotomy.
Conclusions: The aim of corrective surgery is to restore the cervicothoracic alignment, obtaining an adequate postoperative sagittal balance and decreasing the risk of further complications and new revision surgeries.
- Cervicothoracic spine
- Pedicle subtraction osteotomy
- Ponte osteotomy
- Proximal junctional kyphosis
- Vertebral column resection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine