In this review the current status of home parenteral nutrition is analysed, with respect to the predictability of weaning from nutritional support and the risk of developing major complications associated with the technique, the loss of vascular access and liver disease. These two complications were evaluated because they represent the more important indication for intestinal transplantation, the availability of which has changed the perspectives of patients and of physicians. Analysis of outcomes from the largest series allows the identification of patients who could be weaned from parenteral nutrition. Important prognostic factors in patients affected by short bowel syndrome are the length and type of the remnant and the time to tolerate enteral feeding. The main complications of therapy are sepsis, thrombosis, nutrient imbalances and liver disease. Sepsis and thrombosis could lead to line replacement and the loss of vascular access. Sepsis no longer represents a major cause of death, but it is a frequent complication. In some patients, it is difficult to assess the risk factors for sepsis, which is possibly related to a poorer outcome. The care of gut failure appears to be the best preventative measure for the occurrence of cholestatic liver disease, but further studies are needed to define the eventual role of lipid emulsion and of specific nutrient deficiency. The quality of life still remains to be studied: because home parenteral nutrition in children has a longer duration, its analysis is mandatory.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care|
|Publication status||Published - May 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Food Science
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism