Outcome for Conservative Surgery for the Correction of Severe Mitral Valve Regurgitation in Children: A Single-Center Experience

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Evolving reconstructive techniques have progressively become the preferred approach for treatment of pediatric mitral valve regurgitation. We present our experience in a cohort of patients undergoing surgical correction for severe mitral regurgitation. Fifty-five patients (age 1 month-18 years; median 5 years) were included in the present analysis. Different surgical techniques were used (posterior leaflet augmentation in 25, isolated cleft closure in 12, Alfieri-type procedure in 10, annuloplasty in 5, with artificial chordae in 2, and quadrangular resection with chordal transposition in 1). Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 192 months (median 38[IQR 12-54] months). Operative and follow-up mortality was 0%. Reintervention in the whole population occurred in 31% of patients. However, when first surgery was performed under 2 years of age (no = 17), reintervention reached nearly 50%. The degree of residual mitral regurgitation at follow-up remained stable after surgery, while a significant increase in mean transmitral gradient was observed over time (paired t test = 0.03). In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, post-surgical transmitral gradient was the only independent predictor for reintervention (p = 0.017; HR 2.4; 95%CI 1.2-5.1), after correcting for differences in age at surgery, type of reintervention, mitral annulus dimension, and BSA at the first surgery. ROC curve demonstrated that a post-surgical transmitral mean gradient value > 5 mmHg, was predictive for reintervention (AUC = 0.89; Youden index = 0.44). Our study suggests that the use of conservative technique strategy achieves satisfactory functional results in infants and children with severe MR, although the rate of reoperation in younger patients remains substantial. Post-operative moderate mitral stenosis was the strongest predictor for reoperation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Sep 3 2019


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