Outcome of Men With Relapses After Adjuvant Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin for Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

Stefanie Fischer, Torgrim Tandstad, Gabriella Cohn-Cedermark, Constance Thibault, Bruno Vincenzi, Dirk Klingbiel, Costantine Albany, Andrea Necchi, Angelika Terbuch, Anja Lorch, Jorge Aparicio, Axel Heidenreich, Marcus Hentrich, Matthew Wheater, Carl W. Langberg, Olof Ståhl, Christian Daniel Fankhauser, Anis A. Hamid, Konstantinos Koutsoukos, Jonathan ShamashJeff White, Carsten Bokemeyer, Jörg Beyer, Silke Gillessen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: Clinical stage I (CSI) nonseminoma (NS) is a disease limited to the testis without metastases. One treatment strategy after orchiectomy is adjuvant chemotherapy. Little is known about the outcome of patients who experience relapse after such treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 51 patients with CSI NS who experienced a relapse after adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) from 18 centers/11 countries were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcomes were overall and progression-free survivals calculated from day 1 of treatment at first relapse. Secondary outcomes were time to, stage at, and treatment of relapse and rate of subsequent relapses. RESULTS: Median time to relapse was 13 months, with the earliest relapse 2 months after start of adjuvant treatment and the latest after 25 years. With a median follow-up of 96 months, the 5-year PFS was 67% (95% CI, 54% to 82%) and the 5-year OS was 81% (95% CI, 70% to 94%). Overall, 19 (37%) of 51 relapses occurred later than 2 years. Late relapses were associated with a significantly higher risk of death from NS (hazard ratio, 1.10 per year; P = .01). Treatment upon relapse was diverse: the majority of patients received a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Twenty-nine percent of patients experienced a subsequent relapse. At last follow-up, 41 patients (80%) were alive and disease-free, eight (16%) had died of progressive disease, and one patient (2%) each had died from therapy-related or other causes. CONCLUSION: Outcomes of patients with relapse after adjuvant BEP seem better compared with patients who experience relapse after treatment of metastatic disease but worse compared with those who have de-novo metastatic disease. We found a substantial rate of late and subsequent relapses. There seem to be three patterns of relapse with different outcomes: pure teratoma, early viable NS relapse (< 2 years), and late viable NS relapse (> 2 years).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1322-1331
Number of pages10
JournalJ. Clin. Oncol.
Volume38
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Survival Rate
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Cisplatin/administration & dosage
  • Etoposide/administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use
  • Bleomycin/administration & dosage
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/*drug therapy/surgery
  • Orchiectomy
  • Testicular Neoplasms/*drug therapy/pathology/surgery

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