Outcome of patients with intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumors-lessons from the SIOP-CNS-GCT-96 trial

Gabriele Calaminus, Didier Frappaz, Rolf Dieter Kortmann, Barbara Krefeld, Frank Saran, Torsten Pietsch, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Maria Luisa Garre, Umberto Ricardi, Jillian R Mann, Ulrich Göbel, Claire Alapetite, Matthew J Murray, James C Nicholson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Following promising results to increase survival and reduce treatment burden in intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), we conducted a European study using dose-intense chemotherapy followed by risk-adapted radiotherapy.

Methods: All patients received 4 courses of cisplatin/etoposide/ifosfamide. Non-metastatic patients then received focal radiotherapy only (54 Gy); metastatic patients received 30 Gy craniospinal radiotherapy with 24 Gy boost to primary tumor and macroscopic metastatic sites.

Results: Patients with localized malignant NGGCT (n = 116) demonstrated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 0.72 ± 0.04 and 0.82 ± 0.04, respectively. Primary tumor sites were: 67 pineal, 35 suprasellar, 5 bifocal, 9 others. One patient died postsurgery in clinical remission; 3 patients progressed during treatment and 27 (23%) relapsed afterward. Fourteen were local, 6 combined, and 7 distant relapses (outside radiation field). Seventeen of the 27 relapsed patients died of disease. Patients with metastatic disease (n = 33) demonstrated 5-year PFS and OS of 0.68 ± 0.09 and 0.75 ± 0.08, respectively; 1 patient died following progression on treatment and 9 (27%) relapsed afterward (5 local, 1 combined, 3 distant). Only one metastatic patient with recurrence was salvaged. Multivariate analysis identified diagnostic alpha-fetoprotein level (serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid level >1000 ng/mL, 19/149 patients, of whom 11 relapsed; P < 0.0003) and residual disease following treatment, including after second-look surgery (n = 52/145 evaluable patients, 26 relapsed; P = 0.0002) as significant prognostic indicators in this cohort.

Conclusion: In localized malignant NGGCT, craniospinal radiotherapy could be avoided without increased relapses outside the radiotherapy field. Chemotherapy and craniospinal radiotherapy remain the gold standard for metastatic disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1661-1672
Number of pages12
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Nov 29 2017


  • Journal Article


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