Outcomes following minimally invasive imagine-guided percutaneous ablation of adrenal glands

Anna Maria Ierardi, Aldo Carnevale, Salvatore Alessio Angileri, Fabio Pellegrino, Matteo Renzulli, Rita Golfieri, Daqi Zhang, Hui Sun, Melchiore Giganti, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Whilst surgery represents the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal primary malignant tumors, metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands is generally approached conservatively; however, surgery for local control has been controversial, and several reports have described the utility of surgical removal in terms of prolonged survival in selected patients. Different techniques, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), cryoablation (CRA), and chemical ablation, are employed in percutaneous image-guided ablation for primary and metastatic malignancies of the adrenal glands, in case of patients with multiple comorbidities or who refuse surgery. Technical success, clinical success and safety were analysed and discussed in this systematic review. Tumor size was found a significant determinant for local disease control; histology of the primary malignancy and coexistence of tumor elsewhere were correlated with prognosis. These procedures resulted to be feasible and safe, with hypertensive crisis representing the most common complication. Although there is lack of evidence in the literature concerning outcomes compared with surgery, percutaneous ablation may represent a useful therapeutic option for controlling unresectable adrenal metastases, offering patients opportunities for improved survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-866
Number of pages8
JournalGland Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2020


  • Ablation techniques
  • Adrenal gland neoplasms
  • Adrenal glands
  • Chemical ablation
  • Cryoablation
  • Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy
  • Microwave ablation
  • Radiofrequency ablation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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