Neuroblastoma is a rare pediatric cancer characterized by a wide clinical behavior and adverse outcome despite aggressive therapies. New approaches based on targeted drug delivery may improve efficacy and decrease toxicity of cancer therapy. Furthermore, nanotechnology offers additional potential developments for cancer imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Following these lines, in the past years, innovative therapies based on the use of liposomes loaded with anticancer agents and functionalized with peptides capable of recognizing neuroblastoma cells and/or tumor-associated endothelial cells have been developed. Studies performed in experimental orthotopic models of human neuroblastoma have shown that targeted nanocarriers can be exploited for not only decreasing the systemic toxicity of the encapsulated anticancer drugs, but also increasing their tumor homing properties, enhancing tumor vascular permeability and perfusion (and, consequently, drug penetration), inducing tumor apoptosis, inhibiting angiogenesis, and reducing tumor glucose consumption. Furthermore, peptide-tagged liposomal formulations are proved to be more efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth and metastatic spreading of neuroblastoma than nontargeted liposomes. These findings, herein reviewed, pave the way for the design of novel targeted liposomal nanocarriers useful for multitargeting treatment of neuroblastoma.