Overview on the incidence and the characteristics of HIV-related opportunistic infections and neoplasms of the heart: Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy

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Abstract

The manifestation of cardiac involvement in the course of HIV infection has been significantly changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. While in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy era the predominant cardiac pathology was represented by localization of opportunistic infection, now new forms of heart involvement are described. Among infectious agents, viruses and bacteria caused the majority of infections. The 'classic' opportunistic agents, such as Toxoplasma, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, cytomegalovirus and Cryptococcus, have virtually disappeared. Endocarditis is still the most frequent infectious disease of the heart in HIV-infected patients, occurring mainly in drug users, and with the improvement in prognosis, the need for cardiac surgery is increasing. Tuberculosis, the incidence of which is still high in poor resources settings where antiretroviral drugs are not available, is a frequent cause of pericarditis, frequently evolving into cardiac tamponade. Recent studies suggest the direct role of HIV as the cause of myocarditis and heart vessel pathology. This finding points out the need of improving our knowledge about the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this kind of complication.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAIDS (London, England)
Volume17
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2003

Keywords

  • Heart
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • Neoplasm
  • Opportunistic infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Health(social science)

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