P-glycoprotein (PGP), lung resistance-related protein (LRP) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) expression and the blast cells' intracellular daunorubicin accumulation (IDA) were evaluated in 96 previously untreated cases of de novo acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL). 47/96 patients (49%) were classified as PGP+ 44/96 (46%) as LRP+, and 8/96 (8%) as MRP+. The more frequent MDR clusters were PGP-/LRP-/MRP- (32/96 cases, 33%) and the PGP+/LRP+/MRP- (27/96 cases, 28%) followed by PGP+/LRP- /MRP- (15/96 cases, 16%) and PGP-/LRP+/MRP- (14/96 cases, 14%). A favourable karyotype was observed more frequently in PGP- and LRP- cases. A highly significant correlation was found between either PGP or LRP overexpression and leukaemic blast cell IDA. All the patients received standard induction and consolidation treatments containing MDR-related (idarubicin, mitoxantrone, etoposide) and other (arabinosyl cytosine) drugs. Multivariate analysis showed that PGP overexpression was significantly associated with a poor response to treatment, both in terms of primary resistance or shorter survival. Other independent prognostic factors were age and cytogenetics. LRP overexpression did not reach statistical significance, although for LRP+ cases the trend was unfavourable. Due to small numbers, no conclusion could be made regarding MRP overexpression, but 5/8 cases showed unfavourable karyotypic abnormalities, 8/8 had a defective IDA and 6/8 failed to achieve remission. This study showed that both PGP and LRP overexpression are common features in de novo ANLL at onset whereas MRP overexpression is more rare. It suggested that overexpression of one of the MDR related proteins was associated with a defective IDA, and confirmed that, in addition to age and cytogenetics, PGP retains an independent prognostic value. It also suggested that LRP did not affect clinical outcome when patients were treated with idarubicin or mitoxantrone and arabinosyl cytosine.
- Acute leukaemia
- Lung resistance-related protein
- Multidrug resistance associated protein
ASJC Scopus subject areas