P4 medicine versus Hippocrates

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hippocrates was the first to raise awareness of medicine as a science. He asserted the body being a unified whole and emphasized the importance of preventive and predictive medicine, spurring physicians to foster patient collaboration. Recent achievements today have permitted a new approach "P4 medicine" - Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory - with the aim of depicting an individual's health history and molecular profile in determining the best medical intervention in maintaining or restoring wellbeing. There is a link, which brings together Hippocrates and P4 Medicine. This review will elaborate further this statement, considering the scientific achievements that paved the way for recent medical approaches. Emphasis will be given to the social impact of new diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, considering their costs and their success probabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-191
Number of pages7
JournalAnnali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Computational biology
  • History of medicine
  • Human Genome Project
  • Participatory medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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