We characterized the expression and localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its specific type I receptor variants in prostatic, hyperplastic, and carcinomatous tissue collected from patients undergoing prostate biopsy and surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). The immunohistochemical studies using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique evidenced positive immunostaining for PACAP in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate specimens and in some scattered cells of the stroma. Type I PACAP receptors (PAC1 R) in healthy and BPH tissues were localized in all epithelial cells lining the lumen of the acini and in some stromal cells, while in specimens from PCa the anti-PAC1 R antibody stained the apical portion of a large percentage of cells. Furthermore, our molecular studies provide evidence that several PAC1 R isoforms (null, SV1/SV2) are present in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic tissue, the null variant being the most intensely expressed in PCa. These observations provide additional evidence for a role of PACAP and PAC1 R in the events determining the outcome of PCa.
- PAC1 R
- PACAP receptor variants
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)