Aim: Data from two randomized trials were pooled to further characterize the effectiveness of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone in the setting of highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients & methods: The analysis included 1411 patients who were randomized to receive palonosetron or ondansetron/granisetron intravenously on day 1 plus either 1-day or 3-day dexamethasone dosing. The primary end point was complete response (no vomiting and no rescue antiemetics over days 1-5) in cycle one. Data across the studies were analyzed by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results: The vast majority of patients received either cisplatin (62%) or anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (34%). The palonosetron regimen provided a 12 percentage-point improvement in the rate of overall complete response compared with the control regimen (49.2 vs 37.3%; odds ratio: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.33-2.04; p <0.0001). The frequency of no delayed nausea at all daily periods was consistently higher in the palonosetron group. Conclusion: The current analysis confirmed that palonosetron plus dexamethasone improved control of highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting throughout 5 days postchemotherapy to a significantly greater extent than the combination including older 5-HT3 antagonists.
- chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
- highly emetogenic chemotherapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research