Pancreatic cancer signaling pathways, genetic alterations, and tumor microenvironment: The barriers affecting the method of treatment.

Darya Javadrashid, Amir Baghbanzadeh, Afshin Derakhshani, Patrizia Leone, Nicola Silvestris, Vito Racanelli, Antonio Giovanni Solimando, Behzad Baradaran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Genetic alterations, especially the K-Ras mutation, carry the heaviest burden in the progression of pancreatic precursor lesions into pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The tumor microenvironment is one of the challenges that hinder the therapeutic approaches from functioning sufficiently and leads to the immune evasion of pancreatic malignant cells. Mastering the mechanisms of these two hallmarks of PDAC can help us in dealing with the obstacles in the way of treatment. In this review, we have analyzed the signaling pathways involved in PDAC development and the immune system’s role in pancreatic cancer and immune checkpoint inhibition as next-generation therapeutic strategy. The direct targeting of the involved signaling molecules and the immune checkpoint molecules, along with a combination with conventional therapies, have reached the most promising results in pancreatic cancer treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number373
JournalBiomedicines
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • Gene mutation
  • Immune checkpoint
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • PDAC
  • Signaling pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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