Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are one of the most frequent incidental findings in the field of pancreatic diseases, estimated to be present in up to 45% of the general population. They represent an heterogeneous group of tumors with different biological behavior and variable risk of progression to malignancy. While serous cystadenomas (SCAs) have no risk of malignant progression, mucinous cyst adenoma are malignant in 20% of cases and this risk is higher in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Nonsurgical management could be applied in patients with a SCA and in low-risk IPMN and these patients could be managed with follow-up strategies. While follow-up could be interrupted in patients unfit for surgery due to comorbidities or age, and in SCA stable over time, recent evidences do not support surveillance discontinuation in patients with IPMNs fit for surgery. © 2018 SPRING MEDIA PUBLISHING CO. LTD .