Purpose is to review the pathogenic mechanism for ocular hypertension and glaucoma development after pars plana vitrectomy. Both acute and chronic causes are considered, and special attention is paid to the theories and clinical evidence on the risk of developing Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG) after Pars Plana Vitrectomy (PPV). Most existing scientific literature on the issue agree on the role of ascorbate as an oxygen scavenger within the vitreous chamber. Oxygen tension in the vitreous and anterior chamber is maximum inn proximity of the retinal surface and endothelium, respectively and steeply decreases toward the lens, on both sides, and trabecular meshwork. Vitreous removal and, to a lesser extent, liquefaction, greatly reduces oxygen tension gradient in vitreous chamber while cataract extraction has similar effects on anterior chamber oxygen gradients. Oxygen derivatives originated from the cornea and retina are actively reduced by the vitreous gel and/or the crystalline lens. Vitreous removal and cataract extraction reduce drastically this function. Most reported clinical series confirm this hypothesis although protocol difference and follow-up length greatly impact the reliability of results.