Purpose: To investigate risk factors that may be linked to pancreatic cancer. Methods: We designed a multicenter population-based case-control (823 cases, 1679 control patients) study with data collection by using a common protocol and questionnaire. Participating centers were located in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and Poland. Results: After adjustment for confounding factors, a positive history of pancreatitis was associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.68; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.23 - 9.84). The risk was especially high in heavy smokers (OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 3.18 - 74.9). Patients with diabetes had an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.60 - 2.91). The risk was highest in the first year after the development of diabetes (OR, 6.68; 95% CI, 3.56 - 12.6) and decreased over time. A history of allergy was associated with a reduced risk of pancreas cancer (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50 - 0.82). Conclusions: Patients with newly diagnosed diabetes and patients with pancreatitis, particularly in heavy smokers, have an increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer. In addition to being risk factors, these conditions could be early manifestations of underlying pancreatic cancer. A history of allergy decreases the risk of pancreatic cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas