A substantial number of reports have been published during the past year concerning gallstone disease. Many have focused on pathogenesis, epidemiology, and natural history. A large number of studies have dealt with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in particular, the optimal approach to determining whether common bile duct stones are present. There continues to be considerable debate in this regard, although more experience is being gained with intraoperative and postoperative management of these stones. Endoscopic ultrasonography has been studied for this indication. Fewer studies dealing with medical dissolution of gallstones appeared during the past year. Hepatolithiasis has been the topic of a number of studies as awareness of this entity has increased. Finally, refinement of endoscopic techniques for removal of common bile duct stones continues, mainly dealing with large, difficult-to-remove stones.
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