Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune checkpoint inhibitors toxicity

Alessandro Inno, Giulio Metro, Paolo Bironzo, Antonio M Grimaldi, Elisabetta Grego, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Virginia Picasso, Francesco Massari, Stefania Gori

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as an effective treatment for several tumor types and their use in clinical practice is expected to further increase in the immediate future. Although these agents are well tolerated, they are associated with a peculiar spectrum of toxicity, which is immune mediated and may potentially affect every organ. However, immune-related adverse events are mostly reversible if promptly diagnosed and adequately treated. Therefore, it is crucial that medical oncologists know how to diagnose and treat immune-related adverse events. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune-related toxicity of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-421
Number of pages17
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 18 2017


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Journal Article
  • Review


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