Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and monocytes/macrophages (M/M) represent the first defence line against invading microorganisms. Both phagocytic cell functions are precociously compromised in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects, thus leading to infectious and neurological complications in the late stages of disease. Among intracellular pathogens, emerging bacteria such as Bartonella henselae and Rhodococcus equi can cause peculiar clinical pictures, i.e. the bacillary parenchymal angiomatosis and a classical pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, respectively. On the other hand, overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines (CKs) and, in particular, tumor necrosis factor-α under HIV or lipopolysaccharide stimulation may cause neural damage in terms of demyelination and subsequent development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Some therapeutical attempts have been made with colony stimulating factors in order to increase the number and potentiate the function of PMN and M/M. On the other hand, the use of drugs able to reduce exaggerated release of CKs by M/M is suggested in AIDS patients in order to prevent a further aggravation of the clinical condition.
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology|
|Publication status||Published - 1997|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis