Pathophysiology of basal ganglia disorders: Neurophysiological investigations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

An increasing number of neurophysiological studies have provided important information on the pathophysiology of different types of movement disorders, including hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic movement disorders such as dystonia, Huntington’s disease and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The aim of this chapter is to review the main pathophysiological advances that have been made thanks to neurophysiological techniques designed to investigate both voluntary movement and the excitability and plasticity of brainstem, spinal, and cortical circuits. Studies that highlight the involvement of the sensory system in various types of movement disorders will also be discussed. Motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly consist of poverty and slowness of movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, and tremor. Parkinsonian symptoms are thought to occur when degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta induces functional changes in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit [1]. Experimental studies on both parkinsonian animals and humans undergoing functional neurosurgery have demonstrated that neuronal firing is increased (as well as changes in the quality of firing) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), and that activity is reduced in the globus pallidus externa (GPe). This finding points to increased activity in the indirect pathway and decreased activity in the direct pathway, which in turn increases inhibitory output from the GPi and SNr to the thalamus and reduces thalamo-cortical activity [1].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-23
Number of pages10
JournalUnknown Journal
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2011

Fingerprint

Basal Ganglia Diseases
Globus Pallidus
Movement Disorders
Parkinson Disease
Hyperkinesis
Tourette Syndrome
Subthalamic Nucleus
Hypokinesia
Dystonia
Dopaminergic Neurons
Huntington Disease
Neurosurgery
Tremor
Poverty
Thalamus
Brain Stem
Pars Reticulata

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{29216752275b4ac299a32558bc59aa5b,
title = "Pathophysiology of basal ganglia disorders: Neurophysiological investigations",
abstract = "An increasing number of neurophysiological studies have provided important information on the pathophysiology of different types of movement disorders, including hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic movement disorders such as dystonia, Huntington’s disease and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The aim of this chapter is to review the main pathophysiological advances that have been made thanks to neurophysiological techniques designed to investigate both voluntary movement and the excitability and plasticity of brainstem, spinal, and cortical circuits. Studies that highlight the involvement of the sensory system in various types of movement disorders will also be discussed. Motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly consist of poverty and slowness of movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, and tremor. Parkinsonian symptoms are thought to occur when degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta induces functional changes in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit [1]. Experimental studies on both parkinsonian animals and humans undergoing functional neurosurgery have demonstrated that neuronal firing is increased (as well as changes in the quality of firing) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), and that activity is reduced in the globus pallidus externa (GPe). This finding points to increased activity in the indirect pathway and decreased activity in the direct pathway, which in turn increases inhibitory output from the GPi and SNr to the thalamus and reduces thalamo-cortical activity [1].",
author = "Alfredo Berardelli and Antonio Suppa",
year = "2011",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/CBO9781139012942.003",
language = "English",
pages = "14--23",
journal = "Unknown Journal",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pathophysiology of basal ganglia disorders

T2 - Neurophysiological investigations

AU - Berardelli, Alfredo

AU - Suppa, Antonio

PY - 2011/1/1

Y1 - 2011/1/1

N2 - An increasing number of neurophysiological studies have provided important information on the pathophysiology of different types of movement disorders, including hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic movement disorders such as dystonia, Huntington’s disease and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The aim of this chapter is to review the main pathophysiological advances that have been made thanks to neurophysiological techniques designed to investigate both voluntary movement and the excitability and plasticity of brainstem, spinal, and cortical circuits. Studies that highlight the involvement of the sensory system in various types of movement disorders will also be discussed. Motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly consist of poverty and slowness of movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, and tremor. Parkinsonian symptoms are thought to occur when degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta induces functional changes in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit [1]. Experimental studies on both parkinsonian animals and humans undergoing functional neurosurgery have demonstrated that neuronal firing is increased (as well as changes in the quality of firing) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), and that activity is reduced in the globus pallidus externa (GPe). This finding points to increased activity in the indirect pathway and decreased activity in the direct pathway, which in turn increases inhibitory output from the GPi and SNr to the thalamus and reduces thalamo-cortical activity [1].

AB - An increasing number of neurophysiological studies have provided important information on the pathophysiology of different types of movement disorders, including hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic movement disorders such as dystonia, Huntington’s disease and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The aim of this chapter is to review the main pathophysiological advances that have been made thanks to neurophysiological techniques designed to investigate both voluntary movement and the excitability and plasticity of brainstem, spinal, and cortical circuits. Studies that highlight the involvement of the sensory system in various types of movement disorders will also be discussed. Motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly consist of poverty and slowness of movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, and tremor. Parkinsonian symptoms are thought to occur when degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta induces functional changes in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit [1]. Experimental studies on both parkinsonian animals and humans undergoing functional neurosurgery have demonstrated that neuronal firing is increased (as well as changes in the quality of firing) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), and that activity is reduced in the globus pallidus externa (GPe). This finding points to increased activity in the indirect pathway and decreased activity in the direct pathway, which in turn increases inhibitory output from the GPi and SNr to the thalamus and reduces thalamo-cortical activity [1].

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84928621444&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84928621444&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/CBO9781139012942.003

DO - 10.1017/CBO9781139012942.003

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84928621444

SP - 14

EP - 23

JO - Unknown Journal

JF - Unknown Journal

ER -