Paths of cognitive and language development in healthy preterm infants

Chiara Ionio, Elisa Riboni, Emanuela Confalonieri, Chiara Dallatomasina, Eleonora Mascheroni, Andrea Bonanomi, Maria Grazia Natali Sora, Monica Falautano, Antonella Poloniato, Graziano Barera, Giancarlo Comi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective Despite the presence of many studies on difficulties related to premature birth, findings on developmental outcomes are heterogeneous. This could be explained from a biological and environmental point of view, but also from a methodological one. The aims of this study were as follows: assess cognitive and linguistic performance using the BSID-III in a population of healthy preterm infants at 24 and 36 months (corrected age); analyze whether the correction for prematurity should be applied, decide when to stop using corrected age and evaluate possible improvements between 24 and 36 months. Methods Developmental outcome was assessed at 24 and 36 months (corrected age) with the BSID-III in 75 healthy preterm (GA = 32.5 ± 1.97; BW = 1631.55 ± 453.92) and 69 term-born children (GA = 39.77 ± 1.00; BW = 3298.95 ± 457.27). Results Preterm infants had significantly lower scores than those of term infants in Cognitive (COG) and Language (LANG REC, LANG EC) scales of the BSID-III at both 24 and 36 months, considering both corrected (CA) and chronological (UCA) age. At 24 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for each BSID-III scale, while at 36 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for LANG scales. Only the scores in the COG scale were statistically different between 24 and 36 months (F = 4.894, P = 0.009, η2 = 0.075). Considering only the preterm sample at 24 months, the differences between CA and UCA scores in the COG scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.000) and days in hospital (p = 0.002;), while differences between CA and UCA scores in the LANG ESP scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.010), days in hospital (p = 0.001), and birth weight (p = 0.007). At 36 months, no significant correlations were found. Conclusions Preterm birth is followed by poorer cognitive and language outcomes during infancy than full-term birth. Age correction of prematurity is useful if the child is under 2 years of age; however, our findings raise concerns about the need for age correction, considering that at later ages, healthy preterm children have a higher rate of developmental delay compared with term infants. With regard to cognitive development, preterm children seem to recover from their initial disadvantage; however, with regard to linguistic development, data confirm that preterm infants are at risk for language difficulties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-207
Number of pages9
JournalInfant Behavior and Development
Volume44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016

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Language Development
Premature Infants
Language
Premature Birth
Linguistics
Term Birth
Child Development
Birth Weight
Population

Keywords

  • Age correction for prematurity
  • Chronological age
  • Cognitive development
  • Corrected age
  • Language development
  • Prematurity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Ionio, C., Riboni, E., Confalonieri, E., Dallatomasina, C., Mascheroni, E., Bonanomi, A., ... Comi, G. (2016). Paths of cognitive and language development in healthy preterm infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 44, 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2016.07.004

Paths of cognitive and language development in healthy preterm infants. / Ionio, Chiara; Riboni, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Dallatomasina, Chiara; Mascheroni, Eleonora; Bonanomi, Andrea; Natali Sora, Maria Grazia; Falautano, Monica; Poloniato, Antonella; Barera, Graziano; Comi, Giancarlo.

In: Infant Behavior and Development, Vol. 44, 01.08.2016, p. 199-207.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ionio, C, Riboni, E, Confalonieri, E, Dallatomasina, C, Mascheroni, E, Bonanomi, A, Natali Sora, MG, Falautano, M, Poloniato, A, Barera, G & Comi, G 2016, 'Paths of cognitive and language development in healthy preterm infants', Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 44, pp. 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2016.07.004
Ionio C, Riboni E, Confalonieri E, Dallatomasina C, Mascheroni E, Bonanomi A et al. Paths of cognitive and language development in healthy preterm infants. Infant Behavior and Development. 2016 Aug 1;44:199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2016.07.004
Ionio, Chiara ; Riboni, Elisa ; Confalonieri, Emanuela ; Dallatomasina, Chiara ; Mascheroni, Eleonora ; Bonanomi, Andrea ; Natali Sora, Maria Grazia ; Falautano, Monica ; Poloniato, Antonella ; Barera, Graziano ; Comi, Giancarlo. / Paths of cognitive and language development in healthy preterm infants. In: Infant Behavior and Development. 2016 ; Vol. 44. pp. 199-207.
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abstract = "Objective Despite the presence of many studies on difficulties related to premature birth, findings on developmental outcomes are heterogeneous. This could be explained from a biological and environmental point of view, but also from a methodological one. The aims of this study were as follows: assess cognitive and linguistic performance using the BSID-III in a population of healthy preterm infants at 24 and 36 months (corrected age); analyze whether the correction for prematurity should be applied, decide when to stop using corrected age and evaluate possible improvements between 24 and 36 months. Methods Developmental outcome was assessed at 24 and 36 months (corrected age) with the BSID-III in 75 healthy preterm (GA = 32.5 ± 1.97; BW = 1631.55 ± 453.92) and 69 term-born children (GA = 39.77 ± 1.00; BW = 3298.95 ± 457.27). Results Preterm infants had significantly lower scores than those of term infants in Cognitive (COG) and Language (LANG REC, LANG EC) scales of the BSID-III at both 24 and 36 months, considering both corrected (CA) and chronological (UCA) age. At 24 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for each BSID-III scale, while at 36 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for LANG scales. Only the scores in the COG scale were statistically different between 24 and 36 months (F = 4.894, P = 0.009, η2 = 0.075). Considering only the preterm sample at 24 months, the differences between CA and UCA scores in the COG scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.000) and days in hospital (p = 0.002;), while differences between CA and UCA scores in the LANG ESP scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.010), days in hospital (p = 0.001), and birth weight (p = 0.007). At 36 months, no significant correlations were found. Conclusions Preterm birth is followed by poorer cognitive and language outcomes during infancy than full-term birth. Age correction of prematurity is useful if the child is under 2 years of age; however, our findings raise concerns about the need for age correction, considering that at later ages, healthy preterm children have a higher rate of developmental delay compared with term infants. With regard to cognitive development, preterm children seem to recover from their initial disadvantage; however, with regard to linguistic development, data confirm that preterm infants are at risk for language difficulties.",
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author = "Chiara Ionio and Elisa Riboni and Emanuela Confalonieri and Chiara Dallatomasina and Eleonora Mascheroni and Andrea Bonanomi and {Natali Sora}, {Maria Grazia} and Monica Falautano and Antonella Poloniato and Graziano Barera and Giancarlo Comi",
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AU - Ionio, Chiara

AU - Riboni, Elisa

AU - Confalonieri, Emanuela

AU - Dallatomasina, Chiara

AU - Mascheroni, Eleonora

AU - Bonanomi, Andrea

AU - Natali Sora, Maria Grazia

AU - Falautano, Monica

AU - Poloniato, Antonella

AU - Barera, Graziano

AU - Comi, Giancarlo

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N2 - Objective Despite the presence of many studies on difficulties related to premature birth, findings on developmental outcomes are heterogeneous. This could be explained from a biological and environmental point of view, but also from a methodological one. The aims of this study were as follows: assess cognitive and linguistic performance using the BSID-III in a population of healthy preterm infants at 24 and 36 months (corrected age); analyze whether the correction for prematurity should be applied, decide when to stop using corrected age and evaluate possible improvements between 24 and 36 months. Methods Developmental outcome was assessed at 24 and 36 months (corrected age) with the BSID-III in 75 healthy preterm (GA = 32.5 ± 1.97; BW = 1631.55 ± 453.92) and 69 term-born children (GA = 39.77 ± 1.00; BW = 3298.95 ± 457.27). Results Preterm infants had significantly lower scores than those of term infants in Cognitive (COG) and Language (LANG REC, LANG EC) scales of the BSID-III at both 24 and 36 months, considering both corrected (CA) and chronological (UCA) age. At 24 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for each BSID-III scale, while at 36 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for LANG scales. Only the scores in the COG scale were statistically different between 24 and 36 months (F = 4.894, P = 0.009, η2 = 0.075). Considering only the preterm sample at 24 months, the differences between CA and UCA scores in the COG scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.000) and days in hospital (p = 0.002;), while differences between CA and UCA scores in the LANG ESP scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.010), days in hospital (p = 0.001), and birth weight (p = 0.007). At 36 months, no significant correlations were found. Conclusions Preterm birth is followed by poorer cognitive and language outcomes during infancy than full-term birth. Age correction of prematurity is useful if the child is under 2 years of age; however, our findings raise concerns about the need for age correction, considering that at later ages, healthy preterm children have a higher rate of developmental delay compared with term infants. With regard to cognitive development, preterm children seem to recover from their initial disadvantage; however, with regard to linguistic development, data confirm that preterm infants are at risk for language difficulties.

AB - Objective Despite the presence of many studies on difficulties related to premature birth, findings on developmental outcomes are heterogeneous. This could be explained from a biological and environmental point of view, but also from a methodological one. The aims of this study were as follows: assess cognitive and linguistic performance using the BSID-III in a population of healthy preterm infants at 24 and 36 months (corrected age); analyze whether the correction for prematurity should be applied, decide when to stop using corrected age and evaluate possible improvements between 24 and 36 months. Methods Developmental outcome was assessed at 24 and 36 months (corrected age) with the BSID-III in 75 healthy preterm (GA = 32.5 ± 1.97; BW = 1631.55 ± 453.92) and 69 term-born children (GA = 39.77 ± 1.00; BW = 3298.95 ± 457.27). Results Preterm infants had significantly lower scores than those of term infants in Cognitive (COG) and Language (LANG REC, LANG EC) scales of the BSID-III at both 24 and 36 months, considering both corrected (CA) and chronological (UCA) age. At 24 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for each BSID-III scale, while at 36 months, significant differences between corrected and chronological scores were found for LANG scales. Only the scores in the COG scale were statistically different between 24 and 36 months (F = 4.894, P = 0.009, η2 = 0.075). Considering only the preterm sample at 24 months, the differences between CA and UCA scores in the COG scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.000) and days in hospital (p = 0.002;), while differences between CA and UCA scores in the LANG ESP scale were significantly correlated to GA (p = 0.010), days in hospital (p = 0.001), and birth weight (p = 0.007). At 36 months, no significant correlations were found. Conclusions Preterm birth is followed by poorer cognitive and language outcomes during infancy than full-term birth. Age correction of prematurity is useful if the child is under 2 years of age; however, our findings raise concerns about the need for age correction, considering that at later ages, healthy preterm children have a higher rate of developmental delay compared with term infants. With regard to cognitive development, preterm children seem to recover from their initial disadvantage; however, with regard to linguistic development, data confirm that preterm infants are at risk for language difficulties.

KW - Age correction for prematurity

KW - Chronological age

KW - Cognitive development

KW - Corrected age

KW - Language development

KW - Prematurity

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