Background: Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) has a diagnostic and therapeutic role during radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. However, at the time, no prospective data supports the value of extended PLND in improving survival expectances. We sought to describe incidence and location of node metastases in patients treated with extended and superextended PLND. Methods: We evaluated 653 contemporary patients with clinically nonmetastatic high risk nonmuscle invasive or muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy and extended or superextended PLND without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single tertiary referral center between 1990 and 2013. Limited PLND is defined as the removal of obturator and internal iliac nodes. Standard included also the external iliac nodes. Extended includes also common and presacral nodes. Finally, superextended PLND includes all the nodes removed along the inferior mesenteric artery. We evaluated incidence of pathologically node metastases. Logistic regression analyses evaluate preoperative and pathologic characteristics to the risk of harboring node metastases in the extended and superextended template. Results: Overall, 191 (29.3%) patients were found with pathologically node confirmed metastases. Of these, 56 (29.3%) patients were found with a single node metastasis, while 135 (70.7%) had multiple node metastases. The vast majority of patients were found with node metastases standard template (n = 172, 26.3%), on the other hand 30 (4.6%) and 21 (3.2%) patients had node metastases in extended and superextended templates, respectively. However, of these only 2 patients were found without concomitant lymph node metastases in the limited or standard templates. On multivariable analyses, cN+ status (odds ratio = 4.40, P <0.001) and cT3–4 vs. cT1–2 (odds ratio = 2.25, P <0.001) were associated with an increased risk of harboring node metastases in the extended or superextended template. Conclusions: We found that the majority of patients harbored node disease in the limited or standard node dissection pattern. On the other hand, only a minority of patient were found with a disease in extended or superextended template without harboring a concomitant node disease in the limited pattern. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|