Pedobarographic and kinematic analysis in the functional evaluation of two post-operative forefoot offloading shoes

Paolo Caravaggi, Alessia Giangrande, Lisa Berti, Giada Lullini, Alberto Leardini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Forefoot offloading shoes are special orthopaedic footwear designed to protect and unload the injured part of the foot after surgery and for conservative treatments. The offloading action is often achieved by transferring plantar load to the rearfoot via rocker shoes with reduced contact area between shoe and ground. While these shoes are intended to be worn only for short periods, a compromise must be found between functionality and the risk of alterations in gait patterns at the lower limb joints. In this study, the pedobarographic, kinematic and kinetic effects of a traditional half-shoe and a double-rocker full-outsole shoe were compared to those of a comfortable shoe (control). Methods: Ten healthy female participants (28.2±10.0 years) were asked to walk in three different footwear conditions for the left/right foot: control/half-shoe, control/full-outsole, and control/control. Full gait analysis was obtained in three walking trials for each participant in each condition. Simultaneously a sensor insole system recorded plantar pressure in different foot regions. Normalized root-mean-square error, coefficient of determination, and frame-by-frame statistical analysis were used to assess differences in time-histories of kinematic and kinetic parameters between shoes. Results: The half -shoe group showed the slowest walking speed and the shortest stride length. Forefoot plantar load was significantly reduced in the half-shoe (maximum force as % of Body Weight: half-shoe=62.1; full-outsole=86.9; control=93.5; p

Original languageEnglish
Article number59
JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 29 2015


  • Kinematics
  • Kinetics
  • Lower limb joints
  • Offloading shoes
  • Plantar pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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