Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from Chlamydia trachomatis versus PID from Neisseria gonorrhea: From clinical suspicion to therapy

F. De Seta, R. Banco, A. Turrisi, M. Airoud, R. De Leo, G. Stabile, M. Ceccarello, S. Restaino, D. De Santo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most significant complication of sexually transmitted infections in childbearing-age women and it represents an important public health problem because of its long-term sequelae (chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy). Prior to the mid 1970s PID was considered a monoetiologic infection, due primarily to Neisseria gonorrhea. Now it is well documented as a polymicrobial process, with a great number of microrganisms involved. In addition to Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis, other vaginal microrganisms (anaerobes, Gardnerella vaginalis, Haemophilus influenzae, enteric Gram negative rods, Streptococco agalactie, Mycoplasma genitalium) also have been associated with PID. There is a wide variation in PID clinical features; the type and severity of symptoms vary by microbiologic etiology. Women who have chlamydial PID seem more likely than women who have gonococcal PID to be asymptomatic. Since clinical diagnosis is imprecise, the suspicion of PID should be confirmed by genital assessment for signs of inflammation or infection, blood test and imaging evaluation. Laparoscopic approach is considered the gold standard. According to the polymicrobial etiology of PID, antibiotic treatment must provide broad spectrum coverage of likely pathogens. Early administration of antibiotics is necessary to reduce the risk of long-term sequelae.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-430
Number of pages8
JournalGiornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia
Volume147
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012

Keywords

  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Neisseria gonorrhea
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Pregnancy, ectopic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

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