Pelvic lymph node dissection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Efficacy, limitations, and complications - A systematic review of the literature

Guillaume Ploussard, Alberto Briganti, Alexandre De La Taille, Alexander Haese, Axel Heidenreich, Mani Menon, Tullio Sulser, Ashutosh K. Tewari, James A. Eastham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Context Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer is the most effective method for detecting lymph node metastases. However, a decline in the rate of PLND during radical prostatectomy (RP) has been noted. This is likely the result of prostate cancer stage migration in the prostate-specific antigen-screening era, and the introduction of minimally invasive approaches such as robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Objective To assess the efficacy, limitations, and complications of PLND during RARP. Evidence acquisition A review of the literature was performed using the Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with no restriction of language from January 1990 to December 2012. The literature search used the following terms: prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy, robot-assisted, and lymph node dissection. Evidence synthesis The median value of nodal yield at PLND during RARP ranged from 3 to 24 nodes. As seen in open and laparoscopic RP series, the lymph node positivity rate increased with the extent of dissection during RARP. Overall, PLND-only related complications are rare. The most frequent complication after PLND is symptomatic pelvic lymphocele, with occurrence ranging from 0% to 8% of cases. The rate of PLND-associated grade 3-4 complications ranged from 0% to 5%. PLND is associated with increased operative time. Available data suggest equivalence of PLND between RARP and other surgical approaches in terms of nodal yield, node positivity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Conclusions PLND during RARP can be performed effectively and safely. The overall number of nodes removed, the likelihood of node positivity, and the types and rates of complications of PLND are similar to pure laparoscopic and open retropubic procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-16
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Urology
Volume65
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

Keywords

  • Lymph node dissection
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radical prostatectomy
  • Robot assisted

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Medicine(all)

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