The acute phase protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a new biomarker of stroke severity and is a key regulator of oedema resolution and glial responses after cerebral ischaemia, emerging as a possible target for brain repair after stroke. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis are essential events in post-stroke recovery. Here, we investigated for the first time the role of PTX3 in neurogenesis and angiogenesis after stroke. Methods: PTX3 knockout (KO) or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to experimental cerebral ischaemia (induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)). Poststroke neurogenesis was assessed by nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining, whereas angiogenesis was assessed by BrdU, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and PECAM-1 immunostaining. In vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis assays were carried out on neurospheres derived from WT or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) KO mice, and mouse endothelial cell line bEnd.5 respectively. Behavioural function was assessed in WT and PTX3 KO mice using open-field, motor and Y-maze tests. Results: Neurogenesis was significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of PTX3 KO mice, compared to WT mice, 6 days after MCAo. In addition, recombinant PTX3 was neurogenic in vitro when added to neurospheres, which was mediated by IL-1β. In vivo poststroke angiogenesis was significantly reduced in PTX3 KO mice compared to WT mice 14 days after MCAo, as revealed by reduced vascular density, less newly formed blood vessels and decreased expression of VEGFR2. In vitro, recombinant PTX3 induced marked endothelial cellular proliferation and promoted formation of tube-like structures of endothelial cell line bEnd.5. Finally, a lack of PTX3 potentiated motor deficits 14 days after MCAo. Conclusions: These results indicate that PTX3 mediates neurogenesis and angiogenesis and contributes to functional recovery after stroke, highlighting a key role of PTX3 as a mediator of brain repair and suggesting that PTX3 could be used as a new target for stroke therapy.
- Brain repair
- Post-stroke recovery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience